Age determination of sediments of Site LO09-14 (Table 1)

A composite record (LO09-14) of three sediment cores from the subpolar North Atlantic (Reykjanes Ridge) was investigated in order to assess surface ocean variability during the last 11 kyr. The core site is today partly under the influence of the Irminger Current (IC), a branch of the North Atlantic Drift continuing northwestward around Iceland. However, it is also proximal to the Sub-Arctic Front (SAF) that may cause extra dynamic hydrographic conditions. We used statistical methods applied to the fossil assemblages of diatoms to reconstruct quantitative sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Our investigations give evidence for different regional signatures of Holocene surface oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic. Core LO09-14 reveal relatively low and highly variable SSTs during the early Holocene, indicating a weak IC and increased advection of subpolar water over the site. A mid-Holocene thermal optimum with a strong IC occurs from 7.5 to 5 kyr and is followed by cooler and more stable late Holocene surface conditions. Several intervals throughout the Holocene are dominated by the diatom species Rhizosolenia borealis, which we suggest indicates proximity to a strongly defined convergence front, most likely the SAF. Several coolings, reflecting southeastward advection of cold and ice-bearing waters, occur at 10.4, 9.8, 8.3, 7.9, 6.4, 4.7, 4.3 and 2.8 kyr. The cooling events recorded in the LO09-14 SSTs correlate well with both other surface records from the area and the NADW reductions observed at ODP Site 980 indicating a surface-deepwater linkage through the Holocene. Measured on Globigerina bulloides. Polynomial fits for the conversion from core depth (cm) to time domain are: cal kyr BP 1/4 2474 2:9 cm + 0.0222 cm**2 + 0.00084 cm**2 - 2.31E-006 cm**4 , R**2 =0.987 and (ii) LO09/14-3: cal kyr BP = 4221 + 33.95 cm - 0.085 cm**2 + 9.61E-005 cm**3 , R**2 = 0.985.



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