Chemical composition of rocks and minerals from the Karymsky volcanic center, Eastern Kamchatka
2019-11-23T00:18:16Z (GMT) by
The powerful eruption in the Akademii Nauk caldera on January 2, 1996 marked a new activity phase of the Karymsky volcano and became a noticeable event in the history of modern volcanism in Kamchatka. The paper reports data obtained by studying more than 200 glassy melt inclusions in phenocrysts of olivine (Fo82-72), plagioclase (An92-73), and clinopyroxene (Mg# 83-70) in basalts of the 1996 eruption. The data were used to estimate composition of the parental melt and physicochemical parameters of the magma evolution. According to our data, the parental melt corresponded to low magnesium, high aluminum basalt (SiO2 = 50.2%, MgO = 5.6%, Al2O3 = 17%) of the mildly potassium type (K2O = 0.56%) and contained much dissolved volatile components (H2O = 2.8%, S = 0.17%, and Cl = 0.11%). Melt inclusions in the minerals are similar in chemical composition, a fact testifying that the minerals crystallized simultaneously with one another. Their crystallization started at pressure ~1.5 kbar, proceeded within a narrow temperature range of 1040+/-20°C, and continued until near-surface pressure ~100 bar was reached. Degree of crystallization of the parental melt during its eruption was close to 55%. Massive crystallization was triggered by H2O degassing under pressure <1 kbar. Magma degassing in an open system resulted in escape of 82% H2O, 93% S, and 24% Cl (of their initial contents in the parental melt) to the fluid phase. Release of volatile compounds to the atmosphere during the eruption that lasted for 18 h was estimated as 1.7x10**6 t H2O, 1.4x10**5 t S, and 1.5x10**4 t Cl. Concentrations of most incompatible trace elements in the melt inclusions are close to those in the rocks and to the expected fractional differentiation trend. Melt inclusions in plagioclase were found to be selectively enriched in Li. The Li-enriched plagioclase with melt inclusions thought to originate from cumulate layers in the feeding system beneath Karymsky volcano, in which plagioclase interacted with Li-rich melts/brines and was subsequently entrapped and entrained by the magma during the 1996 eruption.