Environmental parameters and morphological parameters of Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides and Orbulina universa sampled during the MedSea2013 cruise

Planktic foraminifera were collected with 150 µm BONGO nets from the upper 200 m water depth at 20 stations across the Mediterranean Sea between 02 May and 02 June, 2013. The main aim is to characterize the species distribution and test the covariance between foraminiferal area density (rho-A) and seawater carbonate chemistry in a biogeochemical gradient including ultraoligotrophic conditions. Average foraminifera abundances are 1.42 ±1.43 ind 10^-3 (ranging from 0.11 to 5.20 ind 10^-3), including 12 morphospecies. Large differences in species assemblages and total abundances are observed between the different Mediterranean sub-basins, with an overall dominance of spinose, symbiont-bearing species indicating oligotrophic conditions. The highest values in absolute abundance are found in the Strait of Gibraltar and the Alboran Sea. The western basin is dominated by Globorotalia inflata and Globigerina bulloides at slightly lower standing stocks than in the eastern basin. In contrast, the planktic foraminiferal assemblage in the warmer, saltier, and more nutrient-limited eastern basin is dominated by Globigerinoides ruber (white). These new results, when combined with previous findings, suggest that temperature-induced surface water stratification, and food availability are the main factors controlling foraminiferal distribution. In the oligotrophic and highly alkaline and supersaturated with respect to calcite and aragonite Mediterranean surface water, standing stocks and rho-A of G. ruber (white) and G. bulloides are affected by both food availability and seawater carbonate chemistry. Rapid warming increased surface ocean stratification impacting food availability and changes in trophic conditions could be the causes of reduced foraminiferal abundance, diversity, and species-specific changes in planktic foraminiferal calcification.

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