(Table 1) Air-earth current density investigated during Atlantic Expedition 1973 of METEOR

2019-11-21T17:45:17Z (GMT) by W Gringel J Leidel R Mühleisen
One main point of our atmospheric-electric measurements over the Atlantic Ocean 1973 was the investigation of the air-earth current density above the sea. In addition to direct measurements at the water surface with a floating net, we calculated the air-earth current density from the electric field and the air conductivity measured simultaneously on board of the ship and during particular ascents in the free atmosphere. During all five ascents the air-earth current density did not change with altitude. For pure maritime air-conditions, the mean air-earth current density was found to be 2.9 pA/m**2. The mean hourly air-earth current density over the Atlantic shows nearly the same 24-hour pattern as measured by Cobb (1977) at the South Pole at the same time. When dust-loaden air masses of African origin reached the ship as well as under continental influence the mean air-earth current density was reduced to 2.1 pA/m**2. The global 24-hour pattern was modified by this continental influences. Finally, it is shown that the values of the air conductivity measured on board R. V. "Meteor" during our earlier expeditions have been influenced by the exhaust of the ship and must therefore be corrected. With this correction, our new mean values of the air-earth current density over the Atlantic are 2.6 pA/m**2 in 1965 and 2.0 pA/m**2 in 1969. From all measurements, the global air-earth current is estimated to be about 1250 A. Latitude and Longitude are means for each day, estimated from cruise track

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