(Table 1) Antioxidant concentrations in liver of wild sea bird chicks from the Norwegian arctic region

The efficiency of antioxidant defenses and relationship with body burden of metal and organic contaminants has not been previously investigated in arctic seabirds, neither in chicks nor in adults. The objective of this study was to compare such defenses in chicks from three species, Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), Northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), and Herring gull (Larus argentatus), and the relationship with tissue concentrations of essential metals such as selenium and iron and halogenated organic compounds, represented by polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The results showed significant species-specific differences in the antioxidant responses which also corresponded with metal and PCB levels in different ways. The capability to neutralize hydroxyl radicals (TOSC-HO°) and the activities of catalase and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPX) clearly increased in species with the higher levels of metals and PCBs, while the opposite trend was observed for Se-independent GPX, TOSC against peroxyl radicals (ROO°) and peroxynitrite (ONOOH). Less clear relationships were obtained for glutathione levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase. The results showed differences in antioxidant efficiency between the species, and some of these defenses exhibited dose-response-like relationships with measured levels of selenium, iron and XPCBs. PCBs, selenium and iron levels were positively related to the responses of antioxidants with potential to reduce HO°/H2O2 (Se-dependent GPX, CAT and TOSC against HO°). However, direct causal relationships between antioxidant responses and contaminant concentrations could not be shown on individual level. Varying levels of metals and contaminants due to different diet and age were probably the main explanations for the species differences in antioxidant defense. Sample amoutn N = 7-14 per parameter. Data extracted in the frame of a joint ICSTI/PANGAEA IPY effort, see http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.150150

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